"The company never issued a catalogue so its hard to know how many styles they made. Most of their clocks were sold to other clock manufacturers, so to find one with the S.C. Spring label in the case is a wonderful 'find' indeed...the image on the reverse-painted lower door glass reflects the type of work that was popular in that day...the clock features faux marble columns with gilded sections."
"It was, along with Eaton's (Austin's), one of the two anchor stores of King Street and for nearly 125 years it maintained that status."
Thanks to cousins Ted Lollis and Warren Hamilton I was able to borrow one of the original copies of “The Campbell’s From Auchindrain” by Emily Campbell Price (discussed in a genealogue entry here) and scan it, in color, to PDF – much better than the previous copy posted that was on microfilm. The complete manuscript (72 mb) can be downloaded here.
Who is this Malcomb? This stone found in Kent County, Ontario, says he was born “a native of Scotland”, died 24 Jul, 1852, age 71, implying he was born cir. 1781. None of the Malcolm’s we have seem to be him. The closest ancestor we have is Malcolm b. 1787 in Auchindrain, Scotland and who died 20 Oct 1862 in Morpeth, Howard Twp., Kent County, Ontario, Canada. Further compounding the mystery is that I cannot locate any other information on the Malcolm/Malcomb cited on this gravestone.
“…just off the road behind a tree near a corn field. It is located in Kent County, on Kent Bridge Rd (which is #15), South of Hwy #2, at the 911 marker #22405.”
July 24, 1852
Aged 71 years
He was a Native of Scotland
There was more at the bottom but I could not make it out.
Thanks to Bev Waukey for the above photo and information!
New found Spencer cousin Linda Portwood writes from Australia with the details of her breakthrough information on the Spencer line:
A great deal of our ancestry is on the internet so will point you in the right direction and you can discover it for yourself. I was so amazed when I first found all that I did on the excellent website by John Palmer who's ancestors also came from the area where our family came from. The website is www.wirksworth.org.uk It is free to access, and much acclaimed, I have authenticated all of the information about our family by checking copies of original Parish Registers on microfilm at a local library, and have found everything correct. The site is a goldmine of information.
Within the site you will find a section called "Inces Pedigrees" and explanations about its origins and authenticity etc. An amazing pedigree has been transcribed for our family, amongst many others. An easy access to this is if you enter Timothy Spencer Ince Pedigrees into Google and it is the first Web Link to come up. Click on this and it will take you to the Inces Pedigree pages within the www.wirksworth.org.uk website. Some reference numbers are shown click on Page 083d and the Pedigree is shown, you will find William Spencer emigrated to Canada mentioned as a son of Timothy and Mary. You will also see Thomas Spencer of Hurstfields in Alton Co Derby farmer, who is my ancestor.
The above sources confirm that William Spencer (grandfather of Spencer Stone) was born in Matlock, Derbyshire, England and then moved to Canada. The new (to us) information shows William ancestors to his 3x great grandfather, James Spencer, baptized in the parish of Ashover in 1679 – 4 miles from Matlock.
Many thanks to Linda for authenticating the Spencer information relevant to us, and for passing on this great breakthrough!
I stumbled across your very interesting Howell Family Genealogy Pages, and was surprised to find your Ancestor, William Spencer. I think that we are distantly related, through my Great Great Great Grandfather Thomas Spencer, who I think was the elder brother of your ancestor William Spencer. I noted that you had no Ancestors for William Spencer. I have traced my Spencer Ancestry back to 1687, and would be willing to share this information with you. In my information, William Spencer is mentioned as emigrating to Canada, and later America. He is also a marriage witness at his brother Thomas Spencer's marriage in 1826. My Spencer ancestors lived in the area that you give as William's birthplace.
In June of 2006 I received an interesting email from Michael Manulak, a student at the University of Toronto. Mr. Manulak said he saw this web site and was developing a detailed research paper on the negotiation of the North Atlantic Treaty in 1948-1949, in which our Thomas Archibald Stone "played an integral role in Washington from July- September 1948." Mr. Manulak asked if I would put him in contact with family members who knew Mr. Stone which I was happy to do.
In December he forwarded a copy of his completed paper titled The Gentle Nudge: The Canadian Department of External Affairs and the North Atlantic Treaty, 1948-1949, with the following note:
You will note that there are several references to Thomas Stone throughout the paper describing his role within the context of the negotiations. You will also note that there is a small section describing him personally on pgs. 11-12. For this I relied extensively on your (Mr. Spencer Howell & Ellen Devine's interviews) as well as some additional research. Although brief, I do believe it is the most extensive research on him to date. I am very grateful for your help with this.
I encourage you to read the entire paper (download a copy here), but here are two excerpts - the first from p.9:
The most active Canadians at the NAT talks were: Lester B. Pearson, Hume Wrong, Thomas A. Stone and Escott Reid.
Then from p.11
Thomas A. Stone, the Canadian Minister in Washington, served more extensively than any Canadian during the NAT negotiations. Having grown up in Chatham, ON, Stone was a close personal friend of Pearson's from their childhood. In terms of his personality, Henderson describes Stone as having a "great good nature" and being "particularly benign". Stone's opinions were essentially internationalist, however, with a greater hint of pragmatism than Reid or Pearson. In Washington, Stone was particularly well-connected having started his career there as a Third Secretary in 1927. In the embassy in Washington, Stone was seen as indispensable to the point that Wrong sought to delay Stone's departure from Washington in the summer of 1949 (for an Ambassadorship in Sweden). Stone, a great entertainer, played musically and, according to Pearson his parties were "famous on two continents". These parties were a known forum for high level diplomacy. Stone maintained close personal relations with Acheson, Hickerson and Theodore Achilles and "very often saw them socially". He had an especially close personal friendship with Achilles and, as a result, one can observe that nearly all conversations with Achilles are made through Stone.
Thanks to Mr. Manulak's paper we now have a better understanding of Thomas Stone's significant role in developing the agreement which forms the basis for the existence of NATO today.
I've just finished re-reading Emily Campbell Price's "The Campbells from Auchindrain". She traces hundreds of descendants of Peter Campbell and Isabel Ferguson's family starting in mid 1700's Argyll, Scotland, (near Inverary) to the US and Canada in 1970. She peppers her 71 page manuscript, which she calls "a long letter to the family", with comments you won't easily forget. And she educates us on the finer points of Scottish genealogy with paragraphs like "The Name Rule":
In Scotland they followed what might be termed a name rule in the naming of children. The eldest son was usually named for his father's father; the second son for his mother's father; the eldest daughter for her mother's mother; the second daughter for her father's mother. If this rule had been hard and fast it would have made things easy, but there were variations...(continues for another half of a page!)
And then she admonishes us with points like:
"Surely some descendant of Peter Campbell and Nancy McArthur can do some investigating...after all...these people were pioneers, and pioneers made our country far more than politicians did. Pioneers should be remembered but how are they to be remembered if we don't know who their descendants are?"
I obtained a copy of the manuscript by making several trips to the Ft. Myers and Naples LDS church libraries and photocopying the microfiche (special ordered from Salt Lake City!). So that you don't have to go through that, I scanned the photocopied pages into PDF format which are now posted in the "Histories" section of the Family Tree database. The names in the manuscript are now also merged into the Family Tree.
What a pleasant surprise awaited in the email today. Judi Wallbridge McRae sent this photo of Neil Campbell , father of Hon. Archibald Campbell. When Neil died in 1880 his granddaughter Flora Maude Campbell (later Stone), was 8 years old.
The link above produces a family tree from Neil Campbell to his 4th Great Grandson Ethan Howell....born 196 years apart!
Thank you Judi!
In 1935, Thomas Archibald Stone and his wife Ellen Ewing Noyes Stone purchased a much loved and beautiful southern plantation named Boone Hall. Lots of information is available on Boone Hall as it is now open to the public, thanks to the generosity of its current owners. (Boone Hall web site)
Last week I visited Boone Hall for the first time. The Live Oaks planted hundreds of years ago that line the still unpaved driveway evoke feelings of a simpler time. The place is just peacefully beautiful.
To my delight, while looking at the exhibits in a small out-building now called the "Thomas A. Stone House", I was able to make a little discovery of my own. A framed two page letter is on exhibit, with this description inscribed in the frame:
** Update 8 Jun 2007 - Sharron Spencer, the Spencer DNA study manager on FamilyTreeDNA, informs me that the latest most up-to-date results can be found here. **
Our Spencer line is from Oswego Co, NY, and although I have not made a connection yet, the DNA study shows some intriguing possibilities. Even though only Spencer males alive today can participate in the study, the data is still extremely useful in locating the ancestor familes our Spencer's were related to.
Last November, just before Thanksgiving, I received an express delivery package from W. Darcy McKeough - our expert on the Stone line. The package contained 6 very large handwritten charts - the largest two being about 11 ft long! All were legder sheets taped together. These draft charts represent the result of many many years of work and collectively contain details on 515 descendants of Laurence Stone. I believe Darcy is getting ever closer to his goal of publishing much of his research in book form.
After many keyboarding sessions, I have finally completed merging the data in the charts into my database so they may be viewed online. Here are two reports that contain the complete list of Laurence Stone (b. 1745, England) descendants:
Once again, we owe Darcy a great debt for sharing his resarch so generously!
This list shows the known "Immigrant grandparents" of Elizabeth Louise STONE Howell who came to North America.
Clicking the name displays a tree showing the descendancy from the immigrant to Elizabeth Louise STONE Howell and her siblings. (this can be a large tree, so scroll your browser horizontally to center it, and vertically to see it) Clicking on a name in the tree displays details for the individual.
(by country of birth, then by generation (e.g.: 9ggf = 9th great grandfather), then by last name at birth)
9x great grandparents
Christian COFFIN b. 1607 Marlborough, Wiltshire, England d. Haverhill, MA (9ggf)
Thomas CORLISS b 1603 Devonshire, England d. Newbury, MA (9ggf)
Thomas DAVIS b. 1603 Marlborough, Wiltshire, England on the "James" in 1635 d. Haverhill, MA (9ggf)
John EMERY b. 1598, Romsey, Hampshire, England d. 1683 Newbury, MA (9ggf)
Richard GARMENT Somersetshire, England (9ggf)
Alice GRANTHAM Emery b. 1599 Romsey, Hampshire, England d. 1649 Newbury, MA (9ggm)
Elizabeth WALKER Warren b. 1583 Kent, England to Plymouth MA on the "Anne" in 1623 (9ggf)
Richard WARREN b. 1579 London, England to Plymouth MA on the "Mayfower" d. 1628 Plymouth, MA (9ggf)
John WEBSTER b. 1605 Ipswich, Suffolk, England d. 1646 Ipswich, MA (9ggf)
8x great grandparents
Ann AMES Ford London, England - Plymouth, MA on the "Fortune"(8ggm)
Mary BETTS Boreman b. 1623 England d. prob CT (8ggm)
Samuel BOREMAN b. 1615 Banbury, England d. 1673 Hartford, CT (8ggf)
Robert CARVER b. 1594 - England (8ggf)
George CORLISS b. abt. 1617 Exeter, Devon, England d. Haverhill, MA (8ggf)
Joanna DAVIS Corliss b. cir 1624 Mralborough, Wiltshire, England d. Haverhill, MA (8ggm)
John EMERY b. 1628, Romsey, Hampshire, England d. 1693 Newbury, MA (8ggf)
Deacon William FORD b. 1604 England - to Plymouth, MA on the "Fortune" in 1621 (8ggf)
Alice GARMENT Whitmarsh b.1600 England (8ggm)
Daniel LADD b. 1613 Deal, Kent Co.,England d. Haverhill, MA (8ggf)
Sarah WALKER Warren b. bef. 1622, St. Olave, Southwark, London, England d. 1700 Plymouth, MA (8ggm)
John WHITMARSH - b. 1596 Somerset, England - d. 1644 Norfolk, MA (8ggf)
William SPENCER b. 1805 Matlock, Darbyshire, England d. 1837 Chatham, Ontario, Canada (1ggf)
3x great grandparents
2x great grandparents
Malcolm CAMPBELL b. 1787 Auchindrain, Arglleshire, Scotland d. 1862 Kent County, Ontario, Canada (2ggf)
Isabel SMITH Campbell b. 1784 Auchindrain, Arglleshire, Scotland d. Kent County, Ontario, Canada 1841 (2ggm)
Neil CAMPBELL b. 1808 South Knapdale, Arglleshire, Scotland d. 1880 Kent County, Ontario, Canada 1841 (1ggf)
8x great grandparents
Philippe DELANO (de Lannoy) b. 1602, Leiden, Holland to Plymouth MA on the "Fortune" in 1621. d. 1681 Bridgewater, Plymouth, MA (8ggf)
7x great grandparents
Henry BODWELL b. 1651, Bodfel, Caernarvon, Wales d. Methuen, MA (7ggf)
Ancestors of Philippe de Lannoy (Delano) take us back into the history of the Low Countries - a region which today very roughly encompasses The Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg - and into an era where the "noblesse" sought to distingush themselves from the "bourgeois" through abstaining in trade, money lending and manual labor.
The article below, prepared by the Art History Department of the University of New York, provides a glimpse into the Low Countries region in the 1400's, at a time (1384-1477) when it was ruled by the dukes of Burgundy and is called 'Valois Burgundy' or the 'Burgundian Netherlands.'
"...Within two generations, extending from Philip the Good's grandfather, Philip the Bold, Valois Burgundy had become a power rivalling the kingdoms of England and France. This "state" was formed through astute marriage alliances, the fortunes of inheritance, purchases, and conquest."
There is a reference to a figure in a painting thought to be "Baudouin de Lannoy, lord of Molembais (c. 1388-1474), as well as mention to many of the place names found in our genealogy. No genealogical link to this "Baudouin" is known. Similar: Beaudoin de Lannoy b. 1438, Beaudoin "Le Begue" de Lannoy
24 Feb 2006 - George English writes to say that he believes the painting is indeed of Baudouin 'le Begue' de Lannoy )
Introduction to Valois Burgundy (click to see the entire article, maps and paintings)
The Order of the Toison d'Or and the Chivalric Revival:
A major cause of the rivalry between the de Croy and Rolin families was the class division between the hereditary nobility and the newly ennobled families who had bourgeois backgrounds but received their titles as rewards for their services as ducal officers and financiers. As a reaction to the economic and social changes that were transforming Europe with the rise of a wealthy merchant class, there was a resurgence of interest in codes of chivalry and solidarity among the nobility. Ancient noble families were feeling threatened by the newly ennobled families like the Rolin. The ancient families emphasized those qualities that set them apart. Traditional feudal values such as service, fidelity, and obedience were asserted. Likewise there was emphasis on the military culture of the knight with its emphasis on honor and valor. "To live nobly" meant a life dedicated to the profession of arms. The de Croy family took great pride in the fact that Jehan de Croy, the father of Antoine, was killed in battle on the fields of Agincourt. There was great class resentment for those who had apparently bought their titles from the profits of their legal or financial careers.
Noble birth, virtue and honor, and not financial prosperity, were the primary attributes of the true noblesse. An abstention from trade, money-lending, and manual labor marks off the true noble from his bourgeois contemporaries. For a member of the nobility to be offered money for their services could be understood as an insult. Georges Chastellain, the chronicler of the Burgundian court, could proudly state, "you have shamed me by sending me money, which I am not accustomed to taking or receiving, because I do not wish to sell my service to good men for a price." Thus this period from the fourteenth to sixteenth centuries which was marked by profound and rapid social, political, and economic changes also witnessed chivalry in many respects at its height with the hardening of class barriers and the assertion of the traditional chivalric values.
This trend was manifested in the creation or revival of orders of knighthood at the principal European courts during the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. The Order of the Garter was founded by Edward III of England in 1348. In 1430, Philip the Good, Duke of Burgundy, on the occasion of his marriage to the Infanta Isabella of Portugal , established the Order of the Toison d'or, or the Golden Fleece. The Order of St. Michael was founded by Louis XI of France in 1469. The ideals of these orders are effectively summarized in the following excerpt from prologue of the statutes of the Toison d'or:
We Philippe, by the grace of God Duke of Burgundy...make known to all present and to come, that for the very great and perfect love that we have for the noble estate and order of knighthood, of which from very ardent and singular affection, we desire the honor and increase, by which the true Catholic Faith, the faith of our mother, the Holy Church, and the tranquility and prosperity of the public may be, as far as possible, defended, guarded, and maintained; we, to the glory and praise of the Almighty, our Creator and Redeemer, in reverence of his glorious mother the Virgin Mary, and to the honor of my lord Saint Andrew, Apostle and Martyr; to the exaltation of virtues and good habit; on the tenth day of January in the year of Our Lord 1429 [O.S.], which was the day of the solemnization of the marriage between us and our most dear and beloved companion, Elizabeth, in our city of Bruges, we did undertake, create, and ordain, and by these presents do undertake, create, and ordain an order and fraternity of knighthood, or amiable company of a certain number of knights, which we wish to be called the Order of the Golden Fleece, under the form, condition, statutes, manner, and articles which follow [D'Arcy Jonathan Dacre Boulton, The Knights of the Crown, p. 365].
Membership was open to only nobles of ancient family. The statutes of the order of the Toison d'or specify that those selected for membership should be distinguished "for [their] sense, prowess, virtues, and good customs... and the confidence [the Duke] had in their loyalty and perserverance in good deeds and honorable works." Members of the order were thus expected to be the models of knightly virtue. The number of members was carefully controlled. Only twenty-five knights along with the king were granted membership to the Order of the Garter at its foundation, while the Order of the Fleece at its foundation allowed for twenty-four members along with the Duke of Burgundy. This number was later increased to thirty-one. As observed by Olivier de La Marche, it was feared that a larger membership would more likely lead to internal dissensions within the order: "if there should be more knights, more contentious matters could arise between those knights that do not make for their unity nor for the furtherance of the intentions of the [order's] head."
Uniting the upper nobility under the authority of the prince was one of the major purposes of these orders. As noted above, the territories falling under the control of the Dukes of Burgundy were marked by major differences in geography, language, law, and customs. The Flemish nobility tended to live in cities while the nobility of Burgundy were based in their rural estates. The diversity of these domains made centralisation difficult. The Toison d'or's emphasis on the allegiance and dependence upon the person of the Duke was invaluable for the Dukes of Burgundy in uniting the nobility of these disparate provinces. In a period when loyalty was becoming increasingly tied to monetary arrangements in the form of pensions and annuities, these orders were a throwback to the system of vassalage traced back to feudal society of the earlier Middle Ages. The oaths of loyalty bound members of the orders together under the authority of the prince. The statutes of the order of the Toison d'or are explicit about the exclusive loyalty of the members to the duke alone. Members were forbidden to belong to any other chivalric associations. The only exception to this rule was the provision that "emperors, kings, and dukes" could belong to their own orders as well as the Toison d'or.
Posted by jhowell at 11:44 AM
A nice tradition for our Stone descendants....
The tradition of placing five kernels of corn at each plate first started at Plymouth on Forefather's Day, 22nd Dec. 1820 on the occasion of the Bi-Centennial of the Landing of the Pilgrims. Hosting the occasion was the newly founded Pilgrim Society with guest speaker, Daniel Webster.
These tokens symbolize the period in 1623 known as the "starving time", but I would like to go back a little to show you that this starving time was by no means an isolated occurrence.
The first Thanksgiving in the fall of 1621 was a bountiful feast, but an inventory taken afterwards in preparation for winter proved that the Pilgrims had grossly overestimated their harvest. The only way they could possibly get through the winter was to cut in half the already meager weekly rations. To make matters worse, soon after in November, arrived the ship Fortune with 35 new settlers and absolutely no provisions, no food, bedding, cookware or warm clothing.
They struggled through the winter, but in May 1622, their food supply was completely gone and the harvest was four months away. You may wonder why they did not hunt and fish for food; according to Edward Winslow, the number of fowl decreased during the warm months and the proper equipment and netting prohibited them from taking advantage of the abundance of cod in the area.
"And indeed," said Winslow, "had we not been in a place where divers sorts of shell fish may be taken with the hand, we must have perished."
In desperation, Winslow was sent 150 miles up the Maine coast to buy, beg or borrow whatever provisions the English ships there could spare. Hearing the plight of this courageous little group, the captains were extremely generous; all who were asked gave what they could and not one would accept payment of any kind. By the time Winslow returned, the settlers were literally starving. The provisions were a godsend, but there were many mouths to feed and when rationed out, each person received only one quarter pound of bread a day.
The long awaited harvest of 1622 was a dismal failure. The Pilgrims had not yet perfected the art of growing corn; they had been busy building the fort and their lack of food that summer left them too weak and weary to tend the fields properly. It seemed that they now faced the prospect of another year with little food.
"Behold now, another providence of God: a ship comes into the harbourPosted by jhowell at 12:09 AM
Another Mayflower & Delano connection is found in Jaques Mahieu. He is the 12th Great Grandfather of many Howell 's via the Stone line.
"He came from Lille, now in the northern part of France. Formerly it was of Walloon Flanders. Heavily protestant, the area was captured by Catholic armies under Parma in 1578, and many Walloon Calvinists fled to England directly, while others fled north towards teh Protestant cities of Bruges and Antwerp. When those cities fell in 1585, refugees went across to England or north to Zeeland and Holland. Apparently the Jacques Mahieu was among these refugees, taking with them their young daughters Mary and Franciose.
Jaques was the father of Marie Mahieu, who we already know to be the mother of Philippe de Lannoy (Delano), our original immgrant to America, arriving on the ship "Fortune" in 1621.
As it turns out, Marie had a sister named Hester. And Hester Mahieu married Francis Cooke, one of the passengers on the "Mayflower" and a signer of the Mayflower Compact.
Jan McEachran provided some insights to the Burk line resulting in a new family tree from Frances Burk to the present
Previously I thought Erastus was the son of David F. Burk, but changed him to be the son of John Burk after receiving the email from Jan, which also matched the information on Peggy Doyle's tree on RootsWeb.
I originally developed the Burk genealogy from a letter written 4 March 1867 by Josia (Jesse) Burk to his nephew David F. Burk. the letter was transcribed by my great grandmother Flora Maude CAMPBELL Stone.
A visit with Ellen STONE Devine in ME at her home "Kinkerri", provided the opportunity to hear her recollections of her father Thomas A. Stone (a diplomat), and of her mother Alexandra EWING Stone. The notes for each are now updated.
Finding this web prompted Emails from Diane STONE Rafael and her sister Sheri STONE Schoening, who are granddaughters of Robert Spencer Stone, provided new details on his family and his descendants.
D. McKeough supplied a copy of John R. Bradfield's genealogy for the Delano lineage to Adelaide Spencer. This allowed me to document the connection between the descendants of Adelaide and her husband Thomas Stone. It also allowed me to make the connection to Richard Warren (tree), one of the signers of the Mayflower compact.
Philippe Delano came to America (Plymouth, MA) on the ship "Fortune" in 1621 from Leiden Hollandand. Philippe is an ancestor to Ulysees S. Grant and Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Here is a tree showing the relationship to the STONE branch of our tree. (note when reading chart: Brown box=Ancestral Line, Yellow=Ancestors Spouse, Grey=Siblings of person in Brown box)
Thanks to W. Darcy McKeough, who supplied a copy of John R. Bradfield's genealogy for the Delano lineage going all the way back to Joan de Franchimont b. 1311!! Bradfield's document enabled us to make the connection to Philippe and to Richard Warren of the Mayflower. Here is a tree from Joan to Julia Spencer HOWELL Conolly - (scroll your browser horizontally to center the chart - its large)
Mahieu -> Delano -> Cherry -> Spencer -> Stone -> Howell
(Please click to view relationships)
We have thought for a long time that the portrait below was of Marie Mahieu de Lannoy, wife of Jean de Lannoy and mother of Philippe Delano -- but this was disproved in a letter from Mr. T.N. Schelhaas who is the Keeper of the records of the City of Leiden, Netherlands. (A copy of the letter can be found here)
The portrait below is of Marie de Lannoy, wife of Jan Pesijn, as far as we know - no relation to our line, and hangs in Leiden today.
Darcy McKeough provided a huge packet of materials on the descendants of Lawrence (since corrected to Laurence) Stone. Many of the pages contain interesting entries that he found published in various genealogy books from Kent County. As time permits, I will scan / transcribe these in and include them in the individual records. For example check the John Rhodes source reference at the bottom of Thomas Stone's record.
Malcolm Campbell and his wife Isabel Smith lived in Auchindrain, Argylleshire, Scotland and Immigrated to Herkimer Co., NY cir 1805, and then eventually moved to Kent County, Ontario, Canada. Extensive research on this line done by Ted Lollis.
Tree from Auchindrain Campbell's to the Howell line.
Auchindrain is a ancient village -- or township -- or communal tenancy -- of about 20 buildings near Inveraray, Scotland, on the estate of the Dukes of Argyll. Auchindrain was not destroyed or materially changed by the Highland Clearances and is therefore the largest and most authentic old rural village in Scotland today. The buildings and adjacent fields have been preserved and are now an open-air museum of farming life.